USA Application Guide
SAT: Two tests
The SAT (Scholastic Aptitude Test) is a common admissions test for all college programmes in the US. It contains two separate versions of the test, the SAT Reasoning (SAT I) and SAT Subject Tests (SAT II). Depending on which university you are applying to, you may need to complete only one of the tests, or both. This guide will include a detailed review of both tests.
Similarities to European Admissions Tests
Some European countries have their own version of a university admissions test. These tests tend to share a common purpose with the SATs, namely to find a way to compare applicants across the board, in a standardised, consistent way. Another similarity is the fact that the tests can typically be taken more than once before the final university application – an opportunity often recommendable to students, as it can often lead to material score improvements.
The SATs is of particular importance given that people from all over the world, apply to universities in the US, and this test gives American admissions officers a consistent benchmark.
SAT Reasoning (SAT I)
SAT Reasoning (also known as SAT I) is a three to four hour long test split into three core subjects, Reading, Writing & Language, Maths [plus an optional Essay]. The entire test is in English.
SAT Subject Tests (SAT II)
SAT Subject Tests are one hour long tests available in 20 different subjects, for example history, natural science, and different languages. Of these 20 tests, you will only have to complete 1 or 2 (depending on which university you are applying to), and the vast majority of times you will get to choose which subject to be tested in.
How many times should you complete the SAT?
Firstly, there is no maximum or minimum rule – it’s entirely up to you how many times you choose to complete the test. It is worth noting that the majority of people significantly improve their scores the second time they take the test, and sometimes even further the third time. Complete your first SAT well ahead of the required deadlines, so you have time to complete as many as are needed to reach your target score. Universities don’t mind that you complete the SAT multiple times, and almost all of them will let you select your best score to go with your application.
Submitting your score to the universities
Universities require you to submit an official test score report, which will be sent directly to them through the company Collegeboard, which administers the SAT test. Through your personal login on www.collegeboard.com, you can order the test score report to be sent to any university of choice directly, at any point. In your SAT test fee, four official test score reports are included; if you want to send out more copies, you will have to pay a small additional fee.
It’s a well-acknowledged fact that achieving good scores in the SAT is less about being a genius, and more about putting in the hours to study and prepare. Your test score is for the most part directly proportional to the number of hours you’ve invested in studying. The studying will make you more familiar with the question types, formats, the logic required to get them right, and how to prioritise wisely. There are plenty of resources beyond StudyAdvantage available to help you study and prepare. Here are some tips:
Prep courses online:
Collegeboard (http://sat.collegeboard.org/practice/). Free instructions, tips and practice questions.
Hot Words for the SAT (http://webserver.nccsc.k12.in.us/hsmedia/hot_words_SAT.htm). A list of the most common ‘difficult words’ in the SAT.
Kaplan (www.kaplan.com). Offers very good but expensive online prep courses.
Khan Academy. Phenomenal resource – use it! https://www.khanacademy.org/test-prep/sat
Key prep books:
The Official SAT Study Guide (Collegeboard)
The Official SAT Study Guide for All Subject Tests (Collegeboard)
Hot Words for the SAT (Barron’s)
Cracking the SAT (Princeton Reveiw)
12 Complete SAT Tests (Kaplan)
7.1 SAT: Logistics – Dates, locations, and costs
This section is intended to give you an overview of the logistics involved in taking the SAT test.
The dates for SAT Reasoning and Subject Tests are the same across the world. The tests are always taken on Saturdays and at every occasion, you can complete either the SAT Reasoning or the SAT Subject test, not both in the same day.
The following dates have been announced for SAT Reasoning and SAT Subject tests:
1 October (registration deadline 1 September)
5 November (registration deadline 7 October)
3 December (registration deadline 3 November)
21 January (registration deadline 21 December)
6 May (registration deadline 7 April)
3 June (registration deadline 9 May)
The SAT logistics are quite straight forward, but require a bit of research. The test is commonly offered in big cities, at venues such as high schools (not always). The test centres vary from one country to another, and so we recomment you do some research to determine when is most convenient for you to take the test/s. If relevant, you may register to take the test/s at any test centre in the world. You are by no means limited to taking the test in your country of residence, but do take into consideration any logistics and costs that may apply when taking the test abroad.
Note that not all the test centres are open during all the dates listed above, and specific SAT Subject Test availability may not be comprehensive across test centres, so please check the CollegeBoard website carefully.
This website has all the key dates, info, test center detail and registration forms for the SATs:https://collegereadiness.collegeboard.org/sat/register/international
Completing the SAT Reasoning Test costs roughly $80 in European countries. The SAT Subject Tests cost roughly $50 plus $10 per test (you can complete between 1 and 3 tests per occasion).
You can register for SAT tests on www.sat.collegeboard.com. Make sure to register in good time, the slots sometimes run out.
7.2 SAT I: Structure & Content
SAT I Test Structure & Length
SAT Reasoning consists of three subjects: Reading, Writing & Language, and Mathematics. There is also an Essay section required for admission to select universities (the universities themselves indicate whether they require you to take this for their admissions process). Remember, the SAT I is only the first test you need to do. Additional SAT Subject Tests may be required of you, depending on your school and programme of interest. Find more information about your school’s specific requirements later on in this guide and/or on the university’s official website.
This is the structure of the SAT I test:
|Test Section:||Time Allowed:||Number of Questions:||Score Range:|
|Reading||65 mins||52||Combined score in 200-800 range|
|Writing & Language||35 mins||44|
|Essay (Optional)||50 mins||1||2-8 in each of 3 criteria|
|Total||180 mins(230 mins if incl. Essay)||154(155 if incl. Essay)||400-1600(Essay score reported separately)|
This is a classic reading comprehension test – can you quickly read and understand a text, process it, and answer questions about it? It’s not about memorizing text or definitions, it’s about digesting and making sense of passages of text, indeed a critical skill for succeeding at college – the SAT test is ment to assess your readiness for college.
All questions are accompanied by a text passage, and sometimes a few diagrams or charts (no math is required), and the questions are based on this information. The question styles are all multiple choice. No subject-specific knowledge is required to do well in the test. The texts always include passages from the following documents:
- A classic or contemporary work of US or world literature
- A U.S. founding document (like the US Constitution) or a text in the great global conversation they inspired (like a speech by Nelson Mandela)
- A text about economics, psychology, sociology, or some other social science
- Two science passages that examine foundational concepts and developments in Earth science, biology, chemistry, or physics
Questions 1-5 are based on the following passage.
This passage is adapted from Edith Wharton, Ethan Frome, originally published in 1911. Mattie Silver is Ethan’s household employee.
Mattie Silver had lived under Ethan’s roof for a year, and from early morning till they met at supper he had frequent chances of seeing her; but no moments in her company were comparable to those when, her arm in his, and her light step flying to keep time with his long stride, they walked back through the night to the farm. He had taken to the girl from the first day, when he had driven over to the Flats to meet her, and she had smiled and waved to him from the train, crying out, “You must be Ethan!” as she jumped down with her bundles, while he reflected, looking over her slight person: “She don’t look much on housework, but she ain’t a fretter,anyhow.” But it was not only that the coming to his house of a bit of hopeful young life was like the lighting of a fire on a cold hearth. The girl was more than the bright serviceable creature he had thought her. She had an eye to see and an ear to hear: he could show her things and tell her things, and taste the bliss of feeling that all he imparted left long reverberations and echoes he could wake at will.
It was during their night walks back to the farm that he felt most intensely the sweetness of this communion. He had always been more sensitive than the people about him to the appeal of natural beauty. His unfinished studies had given form to this sensibility and even in his unhappiest moments field and sky spoke to him with a deep and powerful persuasion. But hitherto the emotion had remained in him as a silent ache, veiling with sadness the beauty that evoked it. He did not even know whether any one else in the world felt as he did, or whether he was the sole victim of this mournful privilege. Then he learned that one other spirit had trembled with the same touch of wonder: that at his side, living under his roof and eating his bread, was a creature to whom he could say: “That’s Orion down yonder; the big fellow to the right is Aldebaran, and the bunch of little ones—like bees swarming—they’re the Pleiades…” or whom he could hold entranced before a ledge of granite thrusting up through the fern while he unrolled the huge panorama of the ice age, and the long dim stretches of succeeding time. The fact that admiration for his learning mingled with Mattie’s wonder at what he taught was not the least part of his pleasure. And there were other sensations, less definable but more exquisite, which drew them together with a shock of silent joy: the cold red of sunset behind winter hills, the flight of cloud-flocks over slopes of golden stubble, or the intensely blue shadows of hemlocks on sunlit snow. When she said to him once: “It looks just as if it was painted!” it seemed to Ethan that the art of definition could go no farther, and that words had at last been found to utter his secret soul….
As he stood in the darkness outside the church these memories came back with the poignancy of vanished things. Watching Mattie whirl down the floor from hand to hand he wondered how he could ever have thought that his dull talk interested her.To him, who was never gay but in her presence, her gaiety seemed plain proof of indifference. The face she lifted to her dancers was the same which, when she saw him, always looked like a window that has caught the sunset. He even noticed two or three gestures which, in his fatuity, he had thought she kept for him: a way of throwing her head back when she was amused, as if to taste her laugh before she let it out, and a trick of sinking her lids slowly when anything charmed or moved her.
Question 1: Over the course of the passage, the main focus of the narrative shifts from the:
- A) reservations a character has about a person he has just met to a growing appreciation that character has of the person’s worth.
- B) ambivalence a character feels about his sensitive nature to the character’s recognition of the advantages of having profound emotions.
- C) intensity of feeling a character has for another person to the character’s concern that that intensity is not reciprocated.
- D) value a character attaches to the wonders of the natural world to a rejection of that sort of beauty in favor of human artistry.
Correct answer: C
Question 2: In the context of the passage, the author’s use of the phrase “her light step flying to keep time with his long stride” (line 3) is primarily meant to convey the idea that:
- A) Ethan and Mattie share a powerful enthusiasm.
- B) Mattie strives to match the speed at which Ethan works.
- C) Mattie and Ethan playfully compete with each other.
- D) Ethan walks at a pace that frustrates Mattie.
Correct answer: A
(Questions 3-5 omitted)
Writing & Language Section:
The purpose of this section of your SAT test is to test your ability to 1) Read, 2) Find mistakes and weaknesses in the text, and 3) Fix them. It’s like proofreading a text and catching errors and improving the content. Like the Reading section, all questions are multiple choice format, accompanied by passages, and require no prior subject knowledge for the student to be successful.
To answer the questions, you will need to carefully examine sentences and catch inconsistencies with the associated passages and charts. For example, a sentence may be describing a chart slightly misleadingly, and it’s your job to correct the error. The purpose of this section is to test your command of using evidence in writing, to select vocabulary within a specific context, and express ideas more crisply.
Questions 1-11 are based on the following passage and supplementary material.
A Life in Traffic
A subway system is expanded to provide service to a growing suburb. A bike-sharing program is adopted to encourage nonmotorized transportation. 1 To alleviate rush hour traffic jams in a congested downtown area, stoplight timing is coordinated. When any one of these changes 2 occur, it is likely the result of careful analysis conducted by transportation planners.
The work of transportation planners generally includes evaluating current transportation needs, assessing the effectiveness of existing facilities, and improving those facilities or 3 they design new ones. Most transportation planners work in or near cities, 4 but some are employed in rural areas. Say, for example, a large factory is built on the outskirts of a small town. Traffic to and from that location would increase at the beginning and end of work shifts. The transportation 5 planner’s job,might involve conducting a traffic count to determine the daily number of vehicles traveling on the road to the new factory. If analysis of the traffic count indicates that there is more traffic than the 6 current road as it is designed at this time can efficiently accommodate, the transportation planner might recommend widening the road to add another lane.
Transportation planners work closely with a number of community stakeholders, such as government officials and other interested organizations and individuals. 7 Next,representatives from the local public health department might provide input in designing a network of trails and sidewalks to encourage people to walk more. 8 According to the American Heart Association, walking provides numerous benefits related to health and well-being. Members of the Chamber of Commerce might share suggestions about designing transportation and parking facilities to support local businesses.
9 People who pursue careers in transportation planning have a wide variety of educational backgrounds. A two-year degree in transportation technology may be sufficient for some entry-level jobs in the field. Most jobs, however, require at least a bachelor’s degree; majors of transportation planners are 10 varied, including fields such as urban studies, civil engineering, geography, or transportation and logistics management. For many positions in the field, a master’s degree is required.
Transportation planners perform critical work within the broader field of urban and regional planning. As of 2010, there were approximately 40,300 urban and regional planners employed in the United States. The United States Bureau of Labor Statistics forecasts steady job growth in this field, 11 projecting that 16 percent of new jobs in all occupations will be related to urban and regional planning. Population growth and concerns about environmental sustainability are expected to spur the need for transportation planning professionals.
Adapted from United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employment Projections Program.”All Occupations” includes all occupations in the United States economy.
Question 1: At point  in the passage above, which choice best maintains the sentence pattern already established in the paragraph?
- A) NO CHANGE
- B) Coordinating stoplight timing can help alleviate rush hour traffic jams in a congested downtown area.
- C) Stoplight timing is coordinated to alleviate rush hour traffic jams in a congested downtown area.
- D) In a congested downtown area, stoplight timing is coordinated to alleviate rush hour traffic jams.
Correct answer: C
Question 2: At point  in the passage above, which choice best maintains the sentence pattern already established in the paragraph?
- A) NO CHANGE
- B) occur, they are
- C) occurs, they are
- D) occurs, it is
Correct answer: D
The maths test in the SAT is intended to mirror the type of work you would encounter at college, and in jobs you may have going forward. It is therefore a mix of calculator based and non-calculator based questions. The three core topics of the test are:
- Algebra: understanding linear equations and systems
- Problem Solving & Data Analysis: testing quantitative literacy
- Advanced Math: manipulating complex equations
- Geometry and Trigonometry
It’s important to get used to the question formats in the SAT maths section, and to get into a habit of answering questions in a focused and prioritised way, and applying the standard ‘approaches’ to question solving as often as possible. There are almost 60 questions to answer in 80 minutes, so speed matters.
The 2 question types in the Math sections are distinct – the Calculator Questions (multiple choice) and the Grid-in Questions (here, you’re asked to actually provide an answer rather than selecting one). In some of the questions for which a calculator is allowed, you may still be better of going by hand (just like in real life!), however, this is up to you. The non-calculator based questions are known as the “Gridding in” questions, and require you to shade in grids using your pen(cil) to answer questions. See a visual description to this below in the example questions.
Question 1 (calculator allowed): The recommended daily calcium intake for a 20-year-old is 1,000 milligrams (mg). One cup of milk contains 299 mg of calcium and one cup of juice contains 261 mg of calcium. Which of the following inequalities represents the possible number of cups of milk m and cups of juice j a 20-year-old could drink in a day to meet or exceed the recommended daily calcium intake from these drinks alone?
Correct answer: A
Question 2 (calculator allowed): A research assistant randomly selected 75 undergraduate students from the list of all students enrolled in the psychology-degree program at a large university. She asked each of the 75 students, “How many minutes per day do you typically spend reading?” The mean reading time in the sample was 89 minutes, and the margin of error for this estimate was 4.28 minutes. Another research assistant intends to replicate the survey and will attempt to get a smaller margin of error. Which of the following samples will most likely result in a smaller margin of error for the estimated mean time students in the psychology-degree program read per day?
Select an Answer
- A) 40 randomly selected undergraduate psychology-degree program students
- B) 40 randomly selected undergraduate students from all degree programs at the college
- C) 300 randomly selected undergraduate psychology-degree program students
- D) 300 randomly selected undergraduate students from all degree programs at the college
Correct answer: C
Question 3 (Grid-in question): There are 12 men and 24 women in a chorus. What percent of the entire chorus is composed of women? (Disregard the percent sign when gridding your answer).
Answer: 66.7 (%)
This section of the SAT I is optional – only some colleges require you to complete the Essay section. For example, Brown University neither requires nor recommends submitting a test score for the Essay section, but Princeton requires it. The section is meant to test your college essay writing readiness – and therefore simulates what this exercise tends to be like. You are given a text passage to read, and then asked to firstly explain how the author builds an argument in the passage, and then to support your explanation with evidence from the passage. You are not asked to agree or disagree with the author of the passage, but merely to explain how his/her argument is constructed.
In fact, while the passage changes between tests, the task you are asked to complete stays broadly constant. It can therefore be helpful to look at previous SAT tests’ Essay Section to better understand what is expected of you. The task goes along the lines of:
Write an essay in which you explain how [the author] builds an argument to persuade [his/her] audience that [author’s claim]. In your essay, analyze how [the author] uses one or more of the features listed above (or features of your own choice) to strengthen the logic and persuasiveness of [his/her] argument. Be sure that your analysis focuses on the most relevant features of the passage. Your essay should not explain whether you agree with [the author’s] claims, but rather explain how the author builds an argument to persuade [his/her] audience.
Your essay is assessed on a score from 1-4 against each of the following criteria:
- Reading: Your essay needs to reflect a good understanding of the passage it is based on, including the interplay between higher level themes and small details.
- Analysis: This is about 1) breaking down the passage and the techniques it uses to make an argument (i.e. analysing the passage), and 2) writing a well-backed argument evidenced by examples from the passage (i.e. writing an analytical text).
- Writing: How well-written is your essay? You should write in an appropriate tone, display a varied use of language, and perhaps most importantly write in a focused, well-structured format.
As you read the passage below, consider how Dana Gioia uses:
- evidence, such as facts or examples, to support claims.
- reasoning to develop ideas and to connect claims and evidence.
- stylistic or persuasive elements, such as word choice or appeals to emotion, to add power to the ideas expressed.
Adapted from Dana Gioia, “Why Literature Matters” ©2005 by The New York Times Company. Originally published April 10, 2005.
[A] strange thing has happened in the American arts during the past quarter century. While income rose to unforeseen levels, college attendance ballooned, and access to information increased enormously, the interest young Americans showed in the arts—and especially literature—actually diminished.
According to the 2002 Survey of Public Participation in the Arts, a population study designed and commissioned by the National Endowment for the Arts (and executed by the US Bureau of the Census), arts participation by Americans has declined for eight of the nine major forms that are measured….The declines have been most severe among younger adults (ages 18–24). The most worrisome finding in the 2002 study, however, is the declining percentage of Americans, especially young adults, reading literature.
That individuals at a time of crucial intellectual and emotional development bypass the joys and challenges of literature is a troubling trend. If it were true that they substituted histories, biographies, or political works for literature, one might not worry. But book reading of any kind is falling as well.
That such a longstanding and fundamental cultural activity should slip so swiftly, especially among young adults, signifies deep transformations in contemporary life. To call attention to the trend, the Arts Endowment issued the reading portion of the Survey as a separate report, “Reading at Risk: A Survey of Literary Reading in America.”
The decline in reading has consequences that go beyond literature. The significance of reading has become a persistent theme in the business world. The February issue of Wired magazine, for example, sketches a new set of mental skills and habits proper to the 21st century, aptitudes decidedly literary in character: not “linear, logical, analytical talents,” author Daniel Pink states, but “the ability to create artistic and emotional beauty, to detect patterns and opportunities, to craft a satisfying narrative.” When asked what kind of talents they like to see in management positions, business leaders consistently set imagination, creativity, and higher-order thinking at the top.
Ironically, the value of reading and the intellectual faculties that it inculcates appear most clearly as active and engaged literacy declines. There is now a growing awareness of the consequences of nonreading to the workplace. In 2001 the National Association of Manufacturers polled its members on skill deficiencies among employees. Among hourly workers, poor reading skills ranked second, and 38 percent of employers complained that local schools inadequately taught reading comprehension.
The decline of reading is also taking its toll in the civic sphere….A 2003 study of 15- to 26-year-olds’ civic knowledge by the National Conference of State Legislatures concluded, “Young people do not understand the ideals of citizenship… and their appreciation and support of American democracy is limited.”
It is probably no surprise that declining rates of literary reading coincide with declining levels of historical and political awareness among young people. One of the surprising findings of “Reading at Risk” was that literary readers are markedly more civically engaged than nonreaders, scoring two to four times more likely to perform charity work, visit a museum, or attend a sporting event. One reason for their higher social and cultural interactions may lie in the kind of civic and historical knowledge that comes with literary reading….
The evidence of literature’s importance to civic, personal, and economic health is too strong to ignore. The decline of literary reading foreshadows serious long-term social and economic problems, and it is time to bring literature and the other arts into discussions of public policy. Libraries, schools, and public agencies do noble work, but addressing the reading issue will require the leadership of politicians and the business community as well….
Reading is not a timeless, universal capability. Advanced literacy is a specific intellectual skill and social habit that depends on a great many educational, cultural, and economic factors. As more Americans lose this capability, our nation becomes less informed, active, and independent-minded. These are not the qualities that a free, innovative, or productive society can afford to lose.
Write an essay in which you explain how Dana Gioia builds an argument to persuade his audience that the decline of reading in America will have a negative effect on society. In your essay, analyze how Gioia uses one or more of the features in the directions that precede the passage (or features of your own choice) to strengthen the logic and persuasiveness of his argument. Be sure that your analysis focuses on the most relevant features of the passage.
Your essay should not explain whether you agree with Gioia’s claims, but rather explain how Gioia builds an argument to persuade his audience.
Example of a very high quality answer (which received scores of Reading: 4, Analysis: 3, Writing: 4 in the SAT test):
In the article, “Why Literature Matters” by Dana Gioia, Gioia makes an argument claiming that the levels of interest young Americans have shown in art in recent years have declined and that this trend is a severe problem with broad consequences. Strategies Gioia employs to support his argument include citation of compelling polls, reports made by prominent organizations that have issued studies, and a quotation from a prominent author. Gioia’s overall purpose in writing this article appears to be to draw attention towards shortcomings in American participation in the arts. His primary audience would be the American public in general with a significant focus on millennials.
In his introduction paragraph, Gioia employs a distinct contrast with several listed positive changes in American life such as increased college attendance and increases in income, with the focus of his article: the fact that the interest young Americans show in art has declined. This tool is utilized to establish an emphasis on his primary point by highlighting it as a negative development relative to other changes in American life. This literary tool serves a strong purpose by acting as a vehicle to draw the audience into the principal issue addressed by the writing.
In paragraph 5, Gioia utilizes a synergistic reference to two separate sources of information that serves to provide a stronger compilation of support for his main topic. By citing a quotation from author Daniel Pinks who states, that the talents individuals require for success in the 21st Century are not, “linear, logical, analytic talents,” but ones that provide, “the ability to create artistic and emotional beauty, to detect patterns and opportunities,” and “to craft a satisfying narrative,” Gioia is able to build his point with the agreement of a respected individual. He then immediately follows with a statement that business leaders like to see, “imagination, creativity, and higher order thinking” as qualities for individuals in management positions. This dual utilization of claims from two separate sources conveys to Gioia’s audience the sense that the skills built through immersion in the arts are vital to succeeding in the modern workplace which aids in logically leading his audience to the conclusion that a loss of experience with the arts may foreshadow troubling results.
In paragraph 6, Gioia follows up on the point established in paragraph 5 by introducing a negative example of the consequences of loss of the arts with a focus on literacy. Gioia cites a 2001 poll on the National Association of American Manufactures stating stating that poor reading skills ranked second among its employees surveyed for skill deficiencies while 38% of employees believed local schools inadequately taught reading comprehension. Gioias presentation of a numerical statistic based on a major employer adds significant logical weight to his argument by providing an example of the effects of a deficit in experience with art and literature. This may effect his audience by providing a more accurrate depiction of the true problems caused by disconnection with arts while possibly choosing an example they could personally relate to.
Overall, Gioia provides an strong logical argument that disconnection with the arts is troubling for America. He employs strong logical connections and establishes real-world foundations for his point.
7.3 SAT: Subject Tests
SAT: Subject Test:
SAT Subject Tests is the collective name for the 1-hour long tests offered in 20 different subjects. You can choose to do any of 1, 2 or 3 tests in the same test day. You cannot complete a SAT subject test on the same day as you are taking the SAT Reasoning test. Many, but not all, universities require SAT Subject tests ‘ scores as part of the application – you need to research carefully on the universities’ own websites to make sure you comply with their requirements. Some universities, even if they don’t require SAT Subject test scores, may like to see it in the application (so submitting scores could give you an advantage in the application process).
The Subject tests are scored on a scale from 200-800. For some universities/programmes, you may choose which subject test to take, whilst for others, you will be required to take a specific subject test. To the extent you can choose a subject, and you should favour one where you have performed well in high school.
The following subject tests are available:
- Mathematics Level 1 (Algebra and Geometry)
- Mathematics Level 2 (Precalculus and Trigonometry)
- US History
- World History
- English Literature
- Spanish (w or w/o Listening)
- German (w or w/o Listening)
- French (w or w/o Listening)
- Modern Hebrew
- Chinese (w Listening)
- Japanese (w Listening)
- Korean (w Listening)